Earth Sciences

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Research Article |

Treatment of Permanganate Oxidation and Bioremediation on Petroleum Hydrocarbons Contaminated Soil and the Effect on Soil Function

The impact of potassium permanganate oxidation-bioremediation on soil function can be divided into three stages: the oxidation stage, the transition stage, and the bioremediation stage. In order to obtain a deeper revelation of the effect on soil function, the nitrogen, phosphorus, organic matter (OM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) during these three phases of remediation have been investigated. Potassium permanganate (PP) was consumed after 24 hours’ reaction. During this phase, a larger removal rate of TPH was achieved at a PP molar concentration of 0.05 and 0.1 mol/L and under weak acidic or basic conditions. 18%-61% of TPH was removed in 24 hours. PP has a strong impact on soil functionality. Addition of oxidation agent largely decreased DOC amount in soil. However, DOC and the proportion of active OM in soil increased as the connection time (phase two) was prolonged. DOC amount was 172% increased after 60d. After the three phases’ combined remediation, more than 70% of the TPH in soil was reduced while the maximum removal rate was 97.35%. The concentration of the C10-C12 segment has significantly diminished to the point of near disappearance, while the C19-C40 segments have experienced an approximate 40% reduction. The removal rate for high-carbon chain segments remains satisfactory. Addition of tween-80 effectively increased the solubilization and removal rate of TPH while introduced DOC into the reaction system. Moreover, the previous consumption of oxidizers is relatively slow, making it an ideal additive for high organic pollutant-low soil organic matter affinity. Results showed that adjustment of pH and oxidation agent amount, increase of connection time between oxidation and bioremediation, introduction of appropriate additive were capable of reducing the negative impact on soil by remediation.

Permanganate Oxidation, Bioremediation, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Soil Function, Soil Remediation

Sheng Huang, Xin Zhao. (2023). Treatment of Permanganate Oxidation and Bioremediation on Petroleum Hydrocarbons Contaminated Soil and the Effect on Soil Function. Earth Sciences, 12(6), 198-205.

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. LIM Mee Wei, Ee VON LAU, and Phaik Eong POH. A comprehensive guide of remediation technologies for oil-contaminated soil—present works and future directions. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2016, 109 (1): 14-45.
2. LUO Yongming. Trends in soil environmental pollution and the prevention-controlling-remediation strategies in China. Environmental Pollution & Control, 2009, 31 (12): 27-31 (in Chinese).
3. WANG Daohan, SHAN Feng, TANG Jiaxi, et al. Research progresses on the remediation of organic-contaminated soil by biochar. Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology, 2019, 9 (04): 460-466 (in Chinese).
4. XU Shen. Preliminary exploration of chemical oxidation-microbe coupled remediation of BaP-contaminated soil. Zhejiang University, 2019 (in Chinese).
5. ITRC (2011) Green and Sustainable Remediation: State of the Art and Practice, GSR-1,
6. O’BRIEN PL, DESHUTTER TM, CASEY FX., et al. Evaluation of soil function following the remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons—a review of current remediation techniques. Current Pollution Reports. 2017, 3 (3).
7. MURPHY B. W. Soil Organic Matter and Soil Function–Review of the Literature and Underlying Data. Department of the Environment, Canberra, Australia. 2014.
8. SIRGUEY Catherine, Paula Tereza de Souza e SILVA, Christophe SCHWARTZ, et al. Impact of chemical oxidation on soil quality. Chemosphere 72, no. 2, 2008: 282-289.
9. CHEN KF, Chang YC, CHIOU WT. Remediation of diesel‐contaminated soil using in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) and the effects of common oxidants on the indigenous microbial community: a comparison study. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology. 2016, 91 (6): 1877-88.
10. SUTTON Nora B, Alette AM LANGENHOFF, Daniel Hidalgo LASSO., et al. Recovery of microbial diversity and activity during bioremediation following chemical oxidation of diesel contaminated soils. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2014, 98 (6): 2751-64.
11. Zhao, Zhirong, Guohe Huang, Shishi He., et al. "Abundance and community composition of comammox bacteria in different ecosystems by a universal primer set." Science of the Total Environment. 2019, 691: 146-155.
12. SUTTON Nora B., J. Tim GROTENHUIS, Alette AM LANGENHOFF., et al. Efforts to improve coupled in situ chemical oxidation with bioremediation: a review of optimization strategies. Journal of Soils and Sediments. 2011, 11 (1): 129-40.
13. LIU Xiang, Zhengwen LI, Chen ZHANG., et al. Enhancement of anaerobic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by an electron intermediate: Performance and mechanism. Bioresource technology. 2020, 295: 122305.
14. GUO Juan, YANG Yusheng, YANG Hongyu., et al. Potassium Permanganate Oxidation of Phenanthrene and Pyrene in Contaminated Soils. Journal of Agro-Environment Science. 2010, 29 (3): 471-5 (in Chinese).
15. ZHAI yijie, LI Dengxin, Wang Jun., et al. Pretreatment of Cyanide Tailings with Potassium Permanganate in Acid Media. Mining and Metallurgical Engineering. 2010; 30 (3): 66-9 (in Chinese).
16. SUTTON Nora B, Tim GROTENHUIS, Huub HM RIJNAARTS. Impact of organic carbon and nutrients mobilized during chemical oxidation on subsequent bioremediation of a diesel-contaminated soil. Chemosphere. 2014, 97: 64-70.
17. Wei CHEN, Lei HOU, Xiaoli LUO, et al. Effects of chemical oxidation on the sorption and desorption of PAHs in typical Chinese soils. Environmental Pollution. 2009, 157 (6): 1894-903.
18. CHENG Min., ZENG Guangming., Huang, D., et al. Advantages and challenges of Tween 80 surfactant-enhanced technologies for the remediation of soils contaminated with hydrophobic organic compounds. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2017, 314: 98-113.
19. CHEBBI Alif, ANDREA Franzetti, FRANCESCA Formicola et al. Insights into rhamnolipid-based soil remediation technologies by safe microorganisms: A critical review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2022: 133088.