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Volume 5, Issue 6, December 2016, Page: 123-134
Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Soil in Ondo State Bitumen Environment, Nigeria
Tomori W. B., Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Western University, Ontario, Canada; Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
Yanful E. K., Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Western University, Ontario, Canada
Flemming R. L., Department of Geology, Western University, Ontario, Canada
Amoo I. A., Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
Aiyesanmi A. F., Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
Adekoya J. A., Department of Applied Geology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
Received: Oct. 3, 2016;       Accepted: Nov. 22, 2016;       Published: Jan. 4, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.earth.20160506.16      View  4477      Downloads  175
Abstract
The geochemistry and bulk mineralogy of surface (0-30 cm) and subsurface (60-90 cm) soil samples in the bitumen environment of Ondo State Nigeria was studied using X-Ray Florescence and X-Ray Diffraction techniques. The bulk minerals were qualitatively studied with EVA software and quantified using Rietveld refinement method. The mineralogy was found to be essentially quartz, kaolinite and feldspars with respective abundances of 83.76-93.76%, 4.38-10.60% and 1.86-3.82%. The geochemistry reveals that the order of abundance of major oxides is SiO2 > Al2O3 > Fe2O3 > TiO2 ≥ K2O > MgO > CaO > Na2O ≥ P2O5 > MnO > Cr2O3. Only Fe2O3 shows a little leaching into the subsurface layer while TiO2 was relatively stable between the two layers. The high quartz, low kaolinite, low feldspar and low gibbsite content may indicate moderate to high degree of weathering; higher contents of silica and alumina as well as alkalis and calcium in the surface layer may equally suggest an aeolian additions and/or relative enrichment of minerals during weathering and nutrient cycling by vegetation.
Keywords
Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Soil, Bitumen, Environment, XRF, XRD
To cite this article
Tomori W. B., Yanful E. K., Flemming R. L., Amoo I. A., Aiyesanmi A. F., Adekoya J. A., Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Soil in Ondo State Bitumen Environment, Nigeria, Earth Sciences. Vol. 5, No. 6, 2016, pp. 123-134. doi: 10.11648/j.earth.20160506.16
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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