Volume 2, Issue 2, April 2013, Page: 40-46
Recycling of Solid Waste Material In Hong Kong: I. Properties of Modified Clay Mineral Waste Material and its Application for Removal of Cadmium In Water
Y. N. Jiang, Environmental Science Program, Division of Science and Technology, United International College, Beijing Normal University-Hong Kong Baptist University, Zhuhai, Guangdong Province, 519085, P. R. China
H. D. Ruan, Environmental Science Program, Division of Science and Technology, United International College, Beijing Normal University-Hong Kong Baptist University, Zhuhai, Guangdong Province, 519085, P. R. China
S. Y. Lai, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong
C. H. Lee, Environmental Science Program, Division of Science and Technology, United International College, Beijing Normal University-Hong Kong Baptist University, Zhuhai, Guangdong Province, 519085, P. R. China
C. F. Yu, Environmental Science Program, Division of Science and Technology, United International College, Beijing Normal University-Hong Kong Baptist University, Zhuhai, Guangdong Province, 519085, P. R. China
Z. Wu, Environmental Science Program, Division of Science and Technology, United International College, Beijing Normal University-Hong Kong Baptist University, Zhuhai, Guangdong Province, 519085, P. R. China
X. Chen, Environmental Science Program, Division of Science and Technology, United International College, Beijing Normal University-Hong Kong Baptist University, Zhuhai, Guangdong Province, 519085, P. R. China
S. He, Environmental Science Program, Division of Science and Technology, United International College, Beijing Normal University-Hong Kong Baptist University, Zhuhai, Guangdong Province, 519085, P. R. China
Received: Apr. 16, 2013;       Published: Apr. 2, 2013
DOI: 10.11648/j.earth.20130202.13      View  2821      Downloads  179
Abstract
Large quantities of solid waste are disposed to landfill sites in Hong Kong each year and these landfill sites will be filled within five years. Recycling of solid waste material has become a very urgent task and evaluation of its application in environmental remediation has been functioned recently. Mineral-containing waste material, which is one of the common solid waste components to be disposed to landfill sites in Hong Kong, was used to produce the modified clay mineral waste material (MCMWM) for removal of cadmium (Cd) in water. The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of MCMWM related to Cd adsorption were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), BET specific surface area (SSA) and pore size distribution (PSD) measurements, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The particle size of MCMWM ranged from less than a few to tens of micrometers, and the particles had rough surface and structural defects. Specific surface area was 5.6 m2/g, with different types of external and internal pores being observed. The minerals in MCMWM were mainly 2:1 clay minerals. Smectite, illite, chlorite, feldspars, quartz, and calcium hydroxide were detected. Heavy metals including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury and lead detected in MCMWM were much lower than the maximum allowed level for each kind of heavy metal based on the Dutch Standard that has been used worldwide. Cadmium adsorption by MCMWM was very rapid in solid/liquid interface as up to 90% of Cd2+ can be adsorbed within half hour of reaction. The amount of Cd2+ adsorbed increased but the rate of adsorption decreased with increasing concentration of Cd2+ in solution. The Cd2+ adsorption was related to the surface structure and chemistry, including SSA, PSD, surface defect, charge and bonding in MCMWM.
Keywords
Adsorption, Heavy Metals, Modified Clay Mineral Waste Material (MCMWM), Pore Size Distribution (PSD), Specific Surface Area (SSA), Cadmium (Cd)
To cite this article
Y. N. Jiang, H. D. Ruan, S. Y. Lai, C. H. Lee, C. F. Yu, Z. Wu, X. Chen, S. He, Recycling of Solid Waste Material In Hong Kong: I. Properties of Modified Clay Mineral Waste Material and its Application for Removal of Cadmium In Water, Earth Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2013, pp. 40-46. doi: 10.11648/j.earth.20130202.13
Reference
[1]
Online Available: www.epd.gov.hk.
[2]
M.H.B. Hayes, G.H. Bolt, Interactions at the Soil Colloid – Soil Solution Interface (G.H. Bold et al., editors.), Soil colloids and the soil solution. pp.1-33, NATO Science Series E, Plenum, New York and London, 1990.
[3]
J. Wen, H. Li, C.F. Di, C.S. Liang, L.B. Wang, "Risk assessment of Cadmium in food in Guangdong". South China Protection Medicine, Vol.24, pp.63-64 2008.
[4]
A. Lindén, I. Olsson, I. Bensryd, T. Lundh, S. Skerfving, A. Oskarsson, "Monitoring of cadmium in the chain from soil via crops and feed to pig blood and kidney", Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol.55, pp.213-222, 2003.
[5]
M. Trzcinka-Ochocka, M. Jakubowski, G. Razniewska, T. Halatek, A. Gazewski, "The effects of environmental cadmium exposure on kidney function: the possible influence of age", Environmental Research, Vol.95, pp.143–150, 2004.
[6]
T. Kawada, S. Suzuki, "A Review on the Cadmium Content of Rice, Daily Cadmium Intake, and Accumulation in the Kidneys", Journal of Occupational Health, Vol.4, pp.264-269, 2005.
[7]
B.J. Alloway, Heavy Metals in Soils. 2nd Ed, Blackie Academic and Professional, London, 1995.
[8]
Y.B. Zhang, "Research on adsorption of heavy metals by montmorillonite", Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences, Vol.29, pp.184-186, 2008.
[9]
A.C.C. Newman, M.H.B. Hayes, Soil Colloids and Their Associations in Aggregates (M.F. De Boodt, M.H.B. Hayes, A. Herbillon, E.B.A. De Strooper, and J.J. Tuck, editors.), Some properties of clays and of other soil colloids and their influences on soils, pp. 39-55, Plenum, New York and London, 1990.
[10]
H.D. Ruan, R.J. Gilkes, "Kinetics of phosphate sorption and desorption by synthetic aluminous goethite before and after thermal transformation to hematite", Clay Minerals, Vol.31, pp.63-74, 1996.
[11]
H.D. Ruan, R.J. Gilkes, "Dehydroxylation of aluminous goethite: unit cell dimensions, crystal size and surface area" Clays and Clay Minerals, Vol.43, pp.196-211, 1995.
[12]
K.G. Tiller, J. Gerth, G. Brummer, "The adsorption of Cd, Zn and Ni by soil clay fractions: Procedures for partition of bound forms and their interpretation", Geoderma, Vol.34, pp.1-16, 1984.
[13]
M. Liao, "Effects of organic acids on adsorption of cadmium onto kaolinite, goethite, and bayerite", Pedosphere, Vol.16, pp.185-191, 2006.
[14]
I. Al-Hawas, "The impact of EC and pH on the adsorption of Zn and Cd by palygorskite mineral", European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol.24, pp.451-462, 2008.
[15]
S.S. Gupta, K.G. Bhattacharyya, "Treatment of water contaminated with Pb(II) and Cd(II) by adsorption on kaolinite, montmorillonite and their acid-activated forms", Indian Journal of Chemistry Technology, Vol.16, pp.457-470, 2009.
[16]
G. Brunauer, P.H. Emmett, E. Teller, "Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers", Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol.60, pp.309-319, 1938.
[17]
H.D. Ruan, R.L. Frost, J.T. Kloprogge, "Comparison of Raman spectra in characterizing gibbsite, bayerite, diaspore and boehmite", Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, Vol.32, pp.745-750, 2001.
[18]
R.G. Gerritse, "Column- and catchment-scale transport of cadmium: effect of dissolved organic matter", Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, Vol.22, pp.145-163, 1996.
[19]
L.A.G. Aylmore, "Hysteresis in gas sorption isotherms", Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol.46, pp.410-416, 1974.
[20]
I.D. Sills, L.A.G. Aylmore, J.P. Quirk, "A pore size distribution analysis of illite-kaolinite mixtures", Soil Science, Vol.24, pp.480-490, 1973.
[21]
I.D. Sills, L.A.G. Aylmore, J.P. Quirk, "A comparison between mercury injection and nitrogen sorption as methods of determining pore size distribution", Proceedings - Soil Science Society of America, Vol.37, pp.535-537, 1973.
[22]
H.D. Ruan, R.J. Gilkes, "Specific surface area and pore size distribution of synthetic Al-goethite before and after thermal transformation to hematite", Clay Minerals, Vol.31, pp.75-79, 1996.
[23]
F. Watari, J. van Landuyt, P. Delavignette, S. Amelinckx, "Electron microscopic study of dehydration transformations. I. Twin formation and mosaic structure in hematite derived from goethite", Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Vol.29, pp.137-150, 1979.
[24]
F. Watari, P. Delavignette, J. van Landuyt, S. Amelinckx, "Electron microscopic study of dehydration transformations. Part III. High resolution observation of the reaction process FeOOH → Fe2O3", Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Vol.48, pp.49-64, 1983.
[25]
H. Nano, R. Fujiwara, "Micropore formation due to thermal decomposition of acicular microcrystals of α-FeOOH", Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol.73, pp.406-415, 1980.
[26]
J.L. Rendon, J. Cornejo, P. Dearambarri, C.J. Serna, "Pore structure of thermally treated goethite (α-FeOOH)", Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol.92, pp.508-516, 1983.
[27]
H.D. Ruan, R.J. Gilkes, "Accumulation of phosphorus in farm ponds and dams in South-Western Australia", Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol.29, pp.1875-1881, 2000.
[28]
N. Saleh, K. Sirk, T. Phenrat, B. Dufour, K. Matyiaszewski, R.D. Tilton, G.V. Lowry, "Surface modifications enhance nanoiron transport and NAPL targeting in saturated poruous media", Environmental Engineering Science, Vol.24, pp.45-57, 2007.
[29]
C.Y. Fu, W. Dong, Y.Z. Lu, "Form of cadmium in soil and sediment and its effect on water system", Water Resource Protection, Vol.4, pp.25-28, 1996.
[30]
Z.Q. Lin, "Adsorption of Cadmium (Ⅱ) Ions and application of modified clay mineral waste material for removal of heavy metal from contaminated water", Honor Student Thesis. Beijing Normal University-Hong Kong Baptist University United International College, P.R. China, 2008.
[31]
Y.N. Jiang, "Physical, Chemical and Mineralogical Properties of Modified Clay Mineral Waste Materials Relating to Cadmium Adsorption", Honor Student Thesis. Beijing Normal University-Hong Kong Baptist University United International College, P.R. China, 2009.
Browse journals by subject